Electrically powered heat pumps used for private heating, industrial heating of water in production processes or heat recovery, with a performance ranging from 20 to 5.000 kW heating capacity. The refrigerant chiefly used is R134a.
Heat pumps exploiting geothermal energy extract heat from soil via geothermal probes, collectors, etc. for heating purposes. The advantage is the relatively constant availability of energy all year round. Heat pumps using wells, rivers, lakes etc. as a source of water draw their energy from heat exchanger systems specifically designed for individual projects. Water available in large quantities is an efficient source of heat, especially as it is mostly available at a relatively high temperature. Systems simultaneously used for heating and cooling are of interest due to their efficiency. A prerequisite is a sufficiently large source of heat or heat sink, as provided by the geothermal or water systems described above. Heat recovery in ventilation systems or from production processes is a particularly effective method to re-use heat energy at a high temperature, subject to customised analyses and implementations.